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AO's Terms: * Term 1: Sep-Nov     ** Term 2: Jan-Mar     *** Term 3: Apr-Jun

Click here for resources such as pictures study helps, artist books, and websites to search for art work.

2019-2020 TERM 1 Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569; Flemish Northern Renaissance) (This term's composer: Mozart) How to pronounce Bruegel
   1. Landscape with the Fall of Icarus (c.1554-55)
   2. Children's Games (1560) Details and info.
   3. Tower of Babel (1563)
   4. Landscape with the Parable of the Sower (1557) also here.
   5. Hunters in the Snow (1565)
   6. Peasant Wedding (c. 1568) --
         Download a pdf file of this term's six prints here

2019-2020 TERM 2 Gustave Courbet (1819-1877; French Realism) (This term's composer: Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840)
   Do not google Gourbet images; a few are graphically inappropriate.
   1. Stone Breakers, 1850, Destroyed during World War II
   2. Sleeping Spinner, 1853, Musee Fabre, Montpellier, France
   3. The Wounded Man, 1844-1854 (self-portrait), Musee d'Orsay, Paris
   4. Felsiges Flusstal, 1865, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
   5. The Return of the Deer to the Stream at Plaisir Fontaine, 1866, Musee d'Orsay, Paris OR Deer Taking Shelter in Winter, 1866, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lyon, France
   6. The Cliffs of Etretat After the Storm, 1870, Musee d'Orsay, Paris --
         Download a pdf file of this term's six prints here

2019-2020 TERM 3 J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851; English Romanticist) (This term's composer: Schumann, Early Romantic)
Short biography
   1. Fisherman at Sea, 1796, Tate Britain, London
   2. Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps, 1812, National Gallery, London
   3. Rome from the Vatican, 1820, Tate Britain, London
   4. The Burning of the Houses of Parliament, 1835, Cleveland Museum of Art
         OR The Burning of the Houses of Parliament, 1834, Philadelphia Museum of Art
   5. Fighting Temeraire, 1839, National Gallery, London, with commentary by Ruskin; once voted best painting in Britain by popular vote.
   6. Rain, Steam and Speed, 1844, National Gallery, London
         Turner was John Ruskin's favorite artist. Here's just some of Ruskin's writing about Turner --
         Download a pdf file of this term's six prints here

2020-2021 TERM 1 Titian (1485-1576; Italian High Renaissance) (This term's composers: Wagner and Offenbach, German Romantic)
"Titian was one of the giants of Renaissance art, whose revolutionary handling of surface and colour transformed the language of painting." (from AbsoluteArts).
   1. The Descent of the Holy Ghost c.1545
   2. The Supper at Emmaus c.1535
   3. Madonna and Child with St. Catherine and a Rabbit 1530
   4. Portrait of Clarissa Strozzi 1542
   5. Portrait of Emperor Charles V at Muhlberg 1548
   6. The Three Ages of Man c. 1513
         Further Interest: Assumption of the Virgin (Assunta) 1516-1518 (details)

2020-2021 TERM 2 Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519; Italian High Renaissance) (This term's composer: Russian Nationals)
   1. Genevra, which is in the NGA; 1474-1476
   2. The Virgin of the Rocks 1483-86
   3. Lady with Ermine 1483-90
   4. The Last Supper 1498 "One of the most complex paintings in the Western tradition in depicting a variety of psychological reactions and internal states all focussed on a single, non-reacting center, the figure of Jesus of Nazareth. In the bewildering variety of reactions immediately following Jesus's announcement of his coming betrayal, Leonardo in visual terms manifests what Pico della Mirandola and others were saying about the variety and unpredictability of human beings." See more here.
   5. Mona Lisa 1503-06 detail and text
   6. Self-portrait c. 1512
         Further Interest: Katie Meets the Mona Lisa, by James Mayhew.
         Canadians: Mayhew's picture book appeared in Chickadee magazine, in a special art issue which still shows up regularly at yard sales.
         Video: "Leonardo: A Dream of Flight," one of The Inventors' Specials by Devine Entertainment.
         Study of Cat Movements and Positions 1517-18
         A lovely website of DaVinci's art
         Notebooks, translated into English

2020-2021 TERM 3 Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669; Dutch Baroque) (This term's composer: Handel, Baroque)
   1. The Night Watch, 1642 (also here)
   2. The Raising of the Cross, 1633 (also here)
   3. Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633
   4. Aristotle Contemplating a Bust of Homer, 1653 (also here)
   5. Supper at Emmaus, 1648
   6. The Prodigal Son, 1660's

2021-2022 TERM 1 Jan Van Eyck (1395-1441; Flemish Northern Renaissance) (This term's composer: Saint-Saens and Berlioz, Early Romantic)
The Crucifixion and The Last Judgement are two of Van Eyck's most important and well-known works; however, they're gruesome, so alternatives have been suggested along with them.
   1. The Crucifixion, 1425-30 OR Birth of John the Baptist, 1422
   2. The Last Judgement, 1425-30 OR Madonna with Child Reading, 1433
   3. Adoration of the Lamb (From the Ghent Altarpiece, 1425-30)
   4. The Annunciation
   5. Arnolfini Wedding, 1434
   6. Man in a Red Turban, 1433

2021-2022 TERM 2 Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510; Florentine Renaissance) (This term's composer: Bach)
   1. Fortitude, c. 1470, Uffizi Gallery, Florence (CM describes this in Vol 4, Book 2, pg 41)
   2. Primavera, c. 1482, Uffizi Gallery, Florence or, this more modest alternate detail
   3. Madonna of the Magnificat 1483-85, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
   4. The Birth of Venus, c. 1485, Uffizi Gallery, Florence or, this more modest detail
   5. A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts, c. 1484, Louvre, Paris
   6. Calumny of Apelles, or, more modest detail, 1494-95, Uffizi Gallery, Florence (described in CM's Vol 4 Book 1 pg 151)

2021-2022 TERM 3 Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840; German Romantic) (Biography) (This term's composer: Liszt)
   1. The Cross in the Mountains 1808, Gemaldegalerie, Dresden, Germany
   2. The Wanderer above the Mists, 1817-18, Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany
   3. Chalk Cliffs on Rugen, 1818-19, Stiftung Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur, Switzerland
   4. On Board a Sailing Ship, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
   5. Moon Rising over the Sea, 1821, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
   6. Woman at a Window, 1822, National Gallery, Berlin, Germany

2022-2023 TERM 1 Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890; Dutch Post-Impressionist) (This term's composer: Mahler, Bruckner)
   1. The Starry Night, 1889, Museum of Modern Art, New York City
   2. The Chair and the Pipe, 1888, National Gallery, London
   3. The Night Cafe, 1888, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut
   4. Self Portrait as an Artist, 1888, Paris, Arles, St. Remy, Auvers-sur-Oise (part of a traveling exhibit?)
   5. The Vase with Sunflowers, 1888, Paris, Arles, St. Remy, Auvers-sur-Oise
   6. Bedroom at Arles, 1889, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
         Further Interest: The Yellow House (be sure it's the picture book by Susan Goldman Rubin)
         Some of Van Gogh's paintings, including Bedroom at Arles, are available to play with at

2022-2023 TERM 2 Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520; Italian Renaissance) (This term's composers: Ralph Vaughn Williams, Edward Elgar; 20th Century British.)
Biography. Note: If you use the Wikipedia biography, preview it first.
   1. The Knight's Dream, 1504, National Gallery, London temp link ( more here )
   2. St. George and the Dragon, 1504-6, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. temp link (more here)
   3. Galatea, 1512, Villa Farnesina, Rome
       OR Young Woman with a Unicorn, 1506, Galleria Borghese, Rome ( more here )
   4. Sistine Madonna, 1512-1514, Dresden, Germany ( also here )
   5. The Miraculous Draft of Fishes, 1515, The Vatican, Rome ( more about this series here )
   6. Ezekiel's Vision, 1518, Palazzo Pitti, Florence

2022-2023 TERM 3 John Singer Sargent (1856-1925; American) (Biography) (This term's composer: Grieg and Sibelius)
   1. Oyster Gatherers of Cancale, 1878, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
   2. The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
   3. (Violet Sargent at) The Breakfast Table, 1884, Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, MA. Violet was Sargent's younger sister.
   4. Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, 1885-6, Tate Britain, London (see also here)
   5. An Artist in his Studio, 1904, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
   6. Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, 1892-3, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
         Further Interest: Theodore Roosevelt, 1903, The White House, Washington, D.C.
         Robert Louis Stevenson and his Wife, 1885, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR

2023-2024 TERM 1 Tintoretto (1518-1594; Renaissance; self portrait) (This term's music: Renaissance)
   1. Crucifixion, 1565, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice; study
   2. Christ Before Pilate, 1567, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice
   3. The Adoration of the Magi, 1582, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice; study
   4. Portrait of a Man, 1586-1589, State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia
   5. Paradise, 1588, Doge's Palace, Venice
   6. The Last Supper, 1592-1594, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice --

2023-2024 TERM 2 Claude Monet (1840-1926; French Impressionist) (Biography or here) (This term's composer: Ravel)
   1. Terrace at St. Adresse, 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY (also here)
   2. Women in the Garden, 1866, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
   3. Jean Monet on His Hobby Horse, 1872, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
   4. Woman with a Parasol: Madame Monet and Her Son, 1875, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. ( see also here )
   5. Tulip Fields in Holland, 1886, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
   6. The Waterlily Pond, 1899, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey ( Similar image here )

2023-2024 TERM 3 Georges Seurat (1859-1891; French Post-impressionist) (This term's music: Opera Overtures)
   1. Rock-Breakers, Le Raincy, 1882, also here
   2. Man Cleaning His Boat, 1883
   3. Bathers at Asnieres, 1883-84
   4. Sunday on La Grande Jatte (A Sunday on La Grande Jatte) 1884
   5. The Eiffel Tower, 1889, also here
   6. The Circus, 1891

2024-2025 TERM 1 Albrecht Durer (1471-1528; German Renaissance) (This term's composer: Beethoven, Classical/Romantic)
   1. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498, woodcut.
   2. Self-Portrait in a Fur Coat, 1500, Pinakothek, Munich
   3. A Young Hare, 1502, Vienna, Austria
   4. Altarpiece of the Rose Garlands, or here, 1506, Narodni Galerie, Prague
   5. Praying Hands, 1508, Albertina, Vienna
   6. The Knight, Death, and The Devil, or here, 1513-14, engraving

2024-2025 TERM 2 Caravaggio (1571-1610; Italian Baroque) (This term's composer: Vivaldi, Baroque)
   1. Rest During the Flight into Egypt, c.1595, Rome
   2. The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1598-1599, Princeton, NJ
   3. The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599-1600, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
   4. The Conversion on the Way to Damascus, 1600-1601, Rome
   5. Supper in Emmaus, 1606, Milan
   6. The Adoration of the Shepherds, 1608-1609, Messina, Italy

2024-2025 TERM 3 Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863; Romantic) self-portrait (This term's composer: Chopin, Romantic)
   1. Liberty Leading the People, 1830, Paris
      or, this more modest option, The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, 1840, Paris
   2. Portrait of Frederic Chopin, 1838, Paris
   3. Hamlet and Horatio in the Graveyard, 1839, Louvre, Paris ("Alas, poor Yorick!")
   4. The Sultan of Morocco and his Entourage, 1845, Toulouse
   5. Arab Horses Fighting in a Stable, 1860, Paris
   6. The Lion Hunt, 1861, The Art Institute of Chicago

2025-2026 TERM 1 Camille Pissarro (1830-1903; French Impressionist) (This term's composer: Frederick Delius) (1862-1934)
   1. Jalais Hill, Pontoise, 1867, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
   2. The Woods at Marly, 1871, Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid
   3. The Entrance to the Village of Voisins, 1872, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
   4. The Road from Versailles to Saint Germain, Louveciennes. Snow Effect, 1872, Private Collection
   5. The Factory at Pontoise, 1873, Israel Museum, Jerusalem
   6. Le Boulevard de Montmartre, Matinee de Printemps, 1897, Private Collection (Video about this series of paintings) --

2025-2026 TERM 2 Jean Honore Fragonard (1732-1806; French Rococo) (This term's composer: Mozart, Early classical)
AO's Fragonard Biography leaves out the more sordid details of the painter's life.
   1. The Grand Cascade at Tivoli, 1760, or here
   2. The Swing, 1766, OR The See-Saw
   3. The Music Lesson, 1769
   4. A Young Girl Reading, 1776
   5. Education is Everything, 1780
   6. The Visit to the Nursery, before 1784 (Here is a study/drawing of The Visit to the Nursery.)
         Further interest: Compare: The Italian Family, c. 1759; The Happy Family, 1769; The Farmers' Children

2025-2026 TERM 3 Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902; American; Hudson River School) (This term's composer: Mendelssohn, Romantic) Biography, with links to other works
   1. The Wetterhorn, 1857
   2. Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak, 1863, or here
   3. Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California, 1865
   4. Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 1868
   5. Seal Rock, 1872
   6. Last of the Buffalo, 1888
         Further interest (because we couldn't stop at six):
         Sunlight and Shadow, 1862 (study of shadows falling on a church front)
         The Arch of Octavius (The Roman Fish Market), 1858
         Sunset in the Yosemite Valley, 1868
         Bridal Veil Falls, 1872
         On the Saco, (note the colors)
         Wikipedia has a nice collection of high quality works

2026-2027 TERM 1 Norman Rockwell (1894-1978; American Illustrator) (This term's composer: Leonard Bernstein 1918-1990; American)
   1. The Four Freedoms (of Speech, of Worship, from Want, from Fear) (also here), 1943, Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Massachusetts
   2. Shuffleton's Barber Shop, (also here), 1950, The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, Massachusetts
   3. Saying Grace, (also here), 1951
   4. Triple Self-portrait, 1960, Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Massachusetts
   5. The Connoisseur, 1962 and/or Picasso vs Sargent, 1966, Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Massachusetts
   6. The Problem We All Live With, (also here), 1964, Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Massachusetts
         Further Interest: Saturday Evening Post covers; (Girl at the Mirror, Breaking Home Ties, The Marriage License, The Prom Dress...)

2026-2027 TERM 2 Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919; French Impressionist) (This term's composer: Debussy)
   1. La Grenouilliere, 1869, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
   2. Les Grands Boulevards, 1875, The Henry P. McIlhenny [travelling] Collection
   3. La Loge, 1874, Courtauld Institute Galleries, University of London
   4. Girl with a Watering Can, 1876, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
   5. The Two Sisters, On the Terrace, 1881, Art Institute of Chicago
   6. Girls at the Piano, 1892, Musee d'Orsay, Paris

2026-2027 TERM 3 Jacob van Ruisdael (1628/9-1682) and Pieter de Hooch (1629-1684) (This term's composer: Bach)
   1. Ruisdael: Two Watermills and an Open Sluice near Singraven, 1650-52, National Gallery, London
   2. Ruisdael: View of Haarlem with Bleaching Grounds, c.1665, Kunsthaus, Zurich
   3. Ruisdael: Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede, c. 1670, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
   4. de Hooch: Courtyard of a House in Delft, 1658, National Gallery, London
   5. de Hooch: Woman Peeling Apples, c. 1663, Wallace Collection, London
   6. de Hooch: At the Linen Closet, also here, 1663, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

2027-2028 TERM 1 John Singleton Copley (American, 1738-1815) (This term's composer: Haydn)
   1. Paul Revere, 1768-70
   2. Watson and the Shark, 1778 (Graphic depiction of a real event) OR The Copley Family, 1776-7 (for more sensitive students)
   3. The Death of the Earl of Chatham, 1779-81
   4. The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 1782, 1783-91
   5. The Red Cross Knight, 1793 (Lynn Bruce's study notes)
   6. Saul Reproved by Samuel for Not Obeying the Commandments of the Lord, 1798
         Further Interest: The Nativity, 1777

2027-2028 TERM 2 Edouard Manet (man-AY; 1832-1883; French Impressionism) (This term's composer: Tchaikovsky)
   1. Concert in the Tuileries, 1860-62 (Notes at Artchive) OR Luncheon on the Grass, 1863 (some nudity; but arguably his most famous painting. Notes here) .
   2. The Old Musician, 1862
   3. The Races at Longchamp, 1864
   4. The Fifer, 1866
   5. The Railway, 1872; NGA Lecture about this painting
   6. Le Bar aux Folies-Bergere 1881-82; (Audio from Artchives; or YouTube video; not previewed).
         Additional notes for further study here. More paintings here.

2027-2028 TERM 3 The Hudson River School: Cole, Church, Cropsey, Durand (American) (This term's composer: O'Connor)
Thomas Cole, 14 page article by David Quine, Adventures in Art, Cornerstone Curriculum (first appeared in Home Schooling Today.) Used with permission.
   1 and 2. Voyage of Life, 1842 by Thomas Cole (1801-1848) (Allegorical series of 4 paintings, always exhibited together.)
   3. The Oxbow (View From Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm), 1836 by Thomas Cole (1801-1848)
   4. Niagara, 1857 by Frederick Edwin Church (1826-1900) also here
   5. Heart of the Andes, 1859 by Frederick Edwin Church (1826-1900)
   6. Autumn -- On The Hudson River, 1860 by Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900) also here
         Further Interest: Cole - Expulsion From the Garden of Eden, 1828
         Cole: Course of Empire series of 5 paintings; pg 5-14 of David Quine's pdf file includes notes on these paintings.
         Church: Twilight in the Wilderness, 1860; Cotapaxi, 1862; The Icebergs, 1861
         Asher B. Durand: (1796-1886) Kindred Spirits, 1849; also here; New York Public Library
There's a beautiful picture book about Thomas Cole called Picturing America:Thomas Cole and the Birth of American Art by Hudson Talbott ($)

2028-2029 TERM 1 Fra Angelico (1395-1455; Italian Renaissance) (This term's composer: Hildegard von Bingen; 1098-1179)
   1. The Last Judgement, 1432-1435, San Marco, Florence (detail: Heaven)
   2. Transfiguration of Christ, 1437-1446, Museo di San Marco, Florence
   3. The Madonna with Saints, 1438-1443, San Marco Museum, Florence
   4. The Deposition from the Cross, 1443, Museo di San Marco, Florence
   5. The Annunciation, 1450, Monastery of San Marco, Florence
   6. Massacre of the Innocents, 1450-53, Museo di San Marco, Florence
         OR Adoration of the Magi, 1445, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

2028-2029 TERM 2 Diego Velazquez (1599-1660; Spanish Baroque) (This term's music: Children's Classics)
Self portrait, 1640. There is useful commentary on Velazquez here, which discusses many of the paintings below.
   1. Old Woman Frying Eggs, 1618, National Gallery, Edinburgh
   2. The Waterseller of Seville, 1623, Wellington Museum, London
   3. Juan de Pareja, 1630, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY (The book I, Juan de Pareja by Elizabeth B. De Trevino won a Newbery Medal in 1965. Purchase)
   4. Aesop 1639-40, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
   5. Joseph's Coat Brought to Jacob, 1650, El Escorial, Community of Madrid
   6. Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656, Museo del Prado, Madrid Brief video from Ted-Ed

2028-2029 TERM 3 Edgar Degas (day-GAH; 1834-1917; French Impressionism; Self portrait 1855) (This term's composer: Sergei Rachmaninoff) (1873-1943)
   1. The Belleli Family, 1862
   2. A Cotton Office in New Orleans 1873
   3. The Dance Class, 1873-75
   4. Place de la Concorde, 1875
   5. The Little Dancer, sculpture; executed ca. 1880 or 1881; cast in 1922 (another view)
   6. Before the Race, 1882-84
         Further Interest: The Crucifixion, 1861

2029-2030 TERM 1 Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (1796-1875; French Realism. Self Portrait: Sitting next to an Easel, 1825) (This term's composer: Brahms)
   1. The Bridge at Nantes, 1827
   2. Chartres Cathedral, 1830 (retouched 1872)
   3. A View Near Volterra, 1838
   4. The Letter, approx. 1865
   5. Homer and the Shepherds in a Landscape, 1845
   6. Mur (Cotes du Nord), 1855
Corot in the Envjanted Valley - an 8-min video with Corot talking about the two years he spent in Italy which convinced to paint landscapes. In Italian with English subtitles. Features breathtaking videos of the places he painted as well as the paintings themselves.

2029-2030 TERM 2 Jacques-Louis David (ZHOCK lu-WEE dah-VEED; 1748-1825; French. Self Portrait) (This term's composer: Schubert)
   1. Belisarius begging for alms, 1781 Information about the painting
   2. Oath of the Horatii, 1784 Information about the painting
   3. Death of Socrates, 1787 Information about the painting
   4. Portrait of Levoisier and His Wife, 1788 Explanation of the picture
   5. Napoleon Crossing the Alps at the St. Bernard Pass, 1800
   6. The Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine in Notre Dame, 1807.
         Further Interest:
         Napoleon In His Study, 1812; "NGA Kids" activity can supplement this painting.
         Andromache Mourning Hector, 1783; illustrates The Iliad
         The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, 1789; illustrates Plutarch's Life of Brutus
         David's most well-known painting is probably too dark for younger students: The Death of Marat, 1793

2029-2030 TERM 3 Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543; Northern Renaissance. Self Portrait; The artist's family: Charity 1528) (This term's composer: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina; 1525-1594)
   1. Principles of a Schoolmaster: teaching scene for children, 1516
   2. Oberried Altarpiece, 1522: Left; Right
   3. Portrait of a Young Man, date unknown
   4. The Ambassadors, 1533
   5. The Last Supper, date unknown
   6. Henry VIII, 1537
      Year 8 Note: Hans Holbein the Younger would be a great study for AO's year 8, using the following portraits in addition to the self-portrait above:
            1. Erasmus of Rotterdam, 1523
            2. Sir Thomas More, 1527
            3. Henry VIII, King of England, 1535
            4. Jane Seymour, 1536
            5. Anne of Cleves, 1539
            6. Edward, Prince of Wales, 1543

2030-2031 TERM 1 Mary Cassatt (1844-1926; American Impressionist) (This term's composer: Dvorak, late Romantic)
   1. In the Loge/Woman in Black at the Opera, 1880
   2. Woman and Child Driving,1881
   3. Children on the Shore, 1884
   4. The Child's Bath, 1893
   5. The Boating Party 1893/1894
   6. Young Mother Sewing, 1900
         Further Interest: Breakfast in Bed, 1894
         For the moms: a luscious Cassatt you might never see otherwise because it's privately owned: Mother Berthe Holding Her Baby, 1900
         Child Drinking Milk, 1868

2030-2031 TERM 2 Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337; Italian, Renaissance) (This term's music: Medieval)
Works for this term are all portions of larger frescos in Italian chapels. Most date from the early 1300's. We encourage you to view large images of whole frescos to give a sense of the scope, scale and presentation of these works. An overview of the Scrovegni Chapel at Padua, Italy.
   1. Resurrection of Lazarus or here
   2. Birth of Jesus or here
   3. Jesus washes the feet of the apostles or here
   4. The Allegory of Justice
   5. The Nativity and adoration of the shepherds (Lovely close-up detail)
   6. St. Francis feeding the birds or here
         Further Interest: Francis Gives His Cloak to a Poor Man and Madonna Enthroned (or here)
         Vices and Virtues at Scrovegni Chapel (These personifications offer fodder for observation and discussion. Click on the thumbnail images for a larger view.
         You may wish to read more about St. Francis during this term. (Ch 15 in Trial and Triumph)
         Biographical Informaton: Amy Steedman's Knights of Art; ArtArchive; Christus Rex or here

2030-2031 TERM 3 James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903; American born) (This term's composer: Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf; 1739-1799)
   1. Black Lion Wharf, 1859 (or other etching such as Unsafe Tenement, 1858, The Pool, or St James Street, 1878)
   2. Symphony in White No. 1: The White Girl, 1862, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
   3. The Last of Old Westminster, 1862, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
   4. Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Valparaiso Bay, 1866, Tate Britain, London, England (Wikipedia says Whistler, who was on an American ship, painted the Chilean merchant fleet at their moorings the night before the bombardment. See also The Morning after the Revolution, Valparaiso)
   5. Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1 (Whistler's Mother), 1871, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
   6. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1874, Detroit Institute of Arts --

2031-2032 TERM 1 Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640; Belgian Baroque) (This term's composers: European Baroque - Telemann 1681-1767; Corelli 1653-1713)
   1. The Fall of Phaeton, 1604-1605, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
   2. St. George and the Dragon, 1606-07, Museo del Prado, Madrid
   3. Descent from the Cross, 1617 and 1618, Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp
   4. Summer, Peasants going to Market, c. 1618, Windsor, Royal Collection
   5. Isabella Brandt, (Rubens' first wife), 1621, (detail), British Museum, London
   6. Rubens, His Wife Helena Fourment, and Their Son Peter Paul, c. 1639, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY --

2031-2032 TERM 2 Winslow Homer (1836-1910; American) (This term's music: Copland, Gershwin; American)
   1. Prisoners from the Front, 1866, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY OR Home Sweet Home, 1863, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
   2. Snap the Whip, 1872, Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio
   3. The Fog Warning, 1885, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
   4. Deer in the Adirondacks, 1889, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
   5. The Fox Hunt, 1893, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia
   6. The Turtle Pound, 1898, Brooklyn Museum, NY alt link --
      For further interest:
      Breezing Up 1873-76 (perhaps Homer's most well-known painting) National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
      Dressing for the Carnival, 1877 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY

2031-2032 TERM 3 Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564; Italian Renaissance) (This term's composer: Beethoven classical/Romantic)
   1. Pieta, 1498-1499
   2. David, 1501-1504, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence front; hand (detail) OR Moses, c. 1513-1515, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
   3. Doni Tondo, 1507, Uffizi, Florence
   4. Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512, Vatican City (Rome)
   5. Creation of Man, 1512, Vatican City (Rome)
   6. Libyan Sibyl, 1510-1511, Vatican City (Rome); study --
      Click to view various portions of the Sistine Chapel
         Further Interest: Michelangelo by Diane Stanley; Michelangelo and the Renaissance, by David Spence (one page may need editing.)

2032-2033 TERM 1 John Constable (1776-1837; English landscape) (This term's composer: Carl Maria von Weber; 1786-1826)
   1. Boat-building near Flatford Mill, 1815, Victoria and Albert Museum, London
   2. Wivenhoe Park, 1816, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
   3. The Hay Wain, 1821, National Gallery, London
   4. Yarmouth Pier, 1822, Berger Collection, Denver Art Museum
   5. Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, c. 1825, Victoria and Albert Museum, London
   6. Stonehenge, 1835, Victoria And Albert Museum, London --
         Download a pdf file of this term's six prints here.

2032-2033 TERM 2 Jan Vermeer (1632-1675; Dutch Baroque) (This term's composer: Purcell, Baroque)
Biography and Thumbnails of Vermeer's complete collection of works and Essential Vermeer Catalog.
   1. The Milkmaid, 1658, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
   2. Woman in Blue Reading a Letter, 1664, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
   3. Woman Holding a Balance, 1663, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
   4. The Art of Painting, 1668, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
   5. The Geographer, 1669, StaƤdelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt
   6. The Allegory of Faith, 1670's, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
         Download a pdf file of this term's six prints here.

2032-2033 TERM 3 John William Waterhouse (1849-1917; Pre-Raphaelite) (This term's composer: Gabriel Faure)
   1. A Sick Child brought into the Temple of Aesculapius or here 1877, Private Collection
   2. The Lady of Shalott or here, 1888, Tate Britain, London
   3. The Favourites of the Emperor Honorius or here, 1883, Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide
   4. La Belle Dame Sans Merci or here, 1893, Private Collection
   5. Jason and Medea or here, 1907, Private Collection
   6. Penelope and the Suitors or here, 1912, Aberdeen Art Gallery, Aberdeen, Scotland
         Download a pdf file of this term's six prints here.

Picture Study Resources

We are compiling additional art, music, and poetry suggestions for those who would like to supplement or alternate works by a more diverse group of artists. You can view this work in progress here.

Pdf files for AO's picture study are being made available for you to download and print yourself from A Humble Place"; you can access the pdf files of pictures by clicking the "Individual Artworks Only" link by each artist's name. The "Picture Study aid" link is an additional optional resource and may require you to submit your email address or make a purchase, but the "Artworks Only" link is provided with no strings attached. Images from previous terms may be available from this Yahoo Group, but that group is no longer maintained. If your local copy store asks for proof that you're not violating copyright restrictions when making prints from these works, printing and showing this page might help: Copyright Law for Teachers. This blog post discusses the status of historic paintings, especially in England, where copyright laws are stricter than in the U.S.:- Public Domain Painting and its Image.

If you own one of these and wish to use it to supplement, you can view their Table of Contents for help in planning.
Hillyer's A Child's History of Art: chapters listed with dates/historical periods
Katharine Morris Lester's Great Pictures and their Stories 8 volume set: Table of Contents

Art sites: WikiArt's Alphabetical Listings; Olga's Gallery also has a great collection.
Classic art coloring pages (Beware searching this site; searching for Bruegel brings up horror coloring pages!)
Pronunciation guide for artists' names (guide for Dutch names)
Picture Study Ideas from List Members
Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great Volumes 4 and 6, by Elbert Hubbard: A rambling discourse on what the artists were like; probably most suitable for Years 6-12. Volume 4: Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Rubens, Meissonier, Titian, Van Dyck, Fortuny, Ary Scheffer, Millet, Reynolds, Landseer, Gustave Dore. Volume 6: Raphael, Da Vinci, Botticelli, Thorwaldsen, Gainsborough, Velasquez, Corot, Correggio, Bellini, Cellini, Abbey, Whistler. (Other volumes)
Lives of the Artists 10 Volumes written in the 1500's by Giorgio Vasari. [Volume 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10] "The world is debtor to Vasari. He was not much of a painter and he failed at architecture, but he made up for lack of skill by telling all about what others were doing; and if his facts ever faltered, his imagination bridged the break. He is as interesting as Plutarch, as gossipy as Pepys, and as luring as Boswell." (Elbert Hubbard). Also here. Suitable for older students. Also Stories of the Italian Artists from Vasari by EL Seeley.
Great Artists series by Jennie Ellis Keysor; suitable for younger children
--Volume 1: Raphael Santi, Murillo and Spanish Art, Peter Paul Rubens, Albrecht Durer
--Volume 2: Antony van Dyck, Rembrandt van Ryn, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Rosa Bonheur
--Volume 3: Michael Angelo Buonarroti, Leonardo da Vinci, Venice the City of Titian, Early Venetian Art, Titian, Antonio Allegri da Correggio
--Volume 4: Joseph Mallord William Turner, Jean-Bapiste-Camille Corot, Sir John Everett Millais, Sir Frederick Leighton
--Volume 5: Giotto Bondone, Fra Angelico, The Beginning of Realism in Italian Painting, Andrea Mantegna, Guido Reni
Knights of Art by Amy Steedman (for fairly young children) has chapters on Giotto, Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Fra Filippo Lippi, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Filippino Lippi, Pietro Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Andrea del Sarto, Giovanni Bellini, Vittore Carpaccio, Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Paul Veronese
Great Pictures and Their Stories by Katharine Morris Lester (graded readers) Table of Contents here
A Child's History of Art by Virgil Hillyer: complete Table of Contents here.

Parents' Review articles that discuss art appreciation:
On Exhibitions; read quote below from this article about our purpose in picture study, and what to avoid.
Art and Literature in the Parents' Union School
Picture Talks
Thoughts on Flemish Painting
The Story of an Old Picture
How to Show Children Our National Gallery
Music and Art in PNEU Schools

AmblesideOnline Term Schedule:
Term 1: Sept-Nov -- Term 2: Jan-March -- Term 3 April-June

We encourage AmblesideOnline listmembers to follow this term calendar as a group for Artists, Composers, Plutarch, Shakespeare, Folksongs and Hymns. Staying on schedule together for these subjects is voluntary, but greatly enriches our studies as it enables us to share timely and topical resources and experiences on the list.

Just as a small point of interest, our policy of only using works of art that are available online for picture study is also the reason why we don't choose works of art for next term until nearly the end of the previous term--in the early days when we chose further ahead we found that we had to do the search work all over again at term time, because the websites we had chosen had moved their pictures around, so the links didn't work anymore. ;-/

Wendi's notes on Picture Study With Charlotte Mason

Though it isn't always possible or practical, if you want to choose your own artist for picture study, it often works well to look first at the artists who worked during the time period you are studying for history. However, keep in mind that if this is your only criteria for every selection, you will find some eras offer sparse options, and others have an embarassment of riches. Once you have a list of artists to choose from, apply these principles to the artworks and narrow your selection to abut six works by a single artist.

In selecting our pictures, we should keep these things in mind (these are either quotes from, or adapted from, Charlotte Mason's works):

1. The pictures should have a refining, elevating influence.

2. They should express great ideas, and this is more important than the technique.

3. The great ideas our art prints express might include "the great human relationships, relationships of love and service, of authority and obedience, of reverence and pity and neighbourly kindness; relationships to kin and friend and neighbour, to 'cause' and country and kind, to the past and the present."

4. Our art prints ought to put "our children in touch with the great thoughts by which the world has been educated in the past, and to keep . . . them in the right attitude towards the great ideas of the present" -- And bring us into the "world of beauty created for us by those whose Beauty Sense enables them not only to see and take joy in all the Beauty there is, but whose souls become so filled with the Beauty they gather through eye and ear that they produce for us new forms of Beauty."

Do our choices expose the children to those works of art which seek to "interpret to us some of the meanings of life?"
" . . . Fra Angelico will tell us of the beauty of holiness, that Giotto will confide his interpretation of the meaning of life, that Millet will tell us of the simplicity and dignity that belong to labour on the soil, that Rembrandt will show us the sweetness of humanity in many a commonplace countenance.

The artist -- " Reaching, that heaven might so replenish him, Above and through his art ," -- has indispensable lessons to give us . . . the outward and visible sign is of less moment than the inward and spiritual grace." Technique, no matter how brilliant, is not a substitute for expression of beauty, or one of those 'meanings of life' interpretations.

Let us choose pictures using this as a guideline: "Nothing can be a work of art which is not useful, that is to say, which does not minister to the body when well under the command of the mind, or which does not amuse, soothe, or elevate the mind in a healthy state." -- CM quoting William Morris

The works of art we choose should represent 'master ideas,' which the painter "works out, not in a single piece, but here a little and there a little, in a series of studies." The artist is "a teacher, who is to have a refining, elevating effect upon our coarser nature."

Our prints can also be chosen to help the children develop a love for the commonplace beauty of every day things -- "For it is true as Browning told us, -- For, don't you mark, we're made so that we love First when we see them painted, things we have passed Perhaps a hundred times nor cared to see . . . . we learn to see things when we see them painted."

Our art prints should help our children develop an affinity for, an attraction to, the beautiful, the lovely, the pure, the refining -- because "education is concerned to teach him what pictures to delight in."

To go to the source, and you should go to the source, please see Charlotte Mason's own books, in particular:
Vol 1 pg 308-311
Vol 2, page 262
Vol 3 pg 77, page 209, page 239, page 353ff
Vol. 4, pages 2-3, page 42, page 44, 48-49
Vol 5 pg 231-236
Vol. 5 p 312-315
Vol. 6, pages 213-217
Vol. 6, page 275
Vol. 6 328-329
Picture Talk, Parents Review, Vol 17, 1906
Picture Talk, Parents Review, Vol. 12, 1901
Impressions of Conference Work with Class II (scroll down for two paragraphs about a specific picture talk given) A similar explanation and example is offered here.
Art and Literature in the Parents' Union School (the art/picture study section is midway down the page)

Thank You!

The Advisory wishes to express our gratitude to artist/musician Tom Root and his wife, artist Peggy Root, and to Lee Anne Penny for their invaluable contributions to the compilation of the Artist Schedule. We also wish to thank Lee Anne Penny for providing lessons for some of the Art terms.

Quote about art from Parents' Review article "On Exhibitions:"Probably all agree that exhibitions of ostentatious vulgarity are better avoided, and should not be encouraged, and all will be unanimous in feeling that children should, as little as possible, be brought into contact with pictures wherein the desire of the eyes and the pride of life are flaunted in their native brutality. And so it is to be regretted that the contemplation of works devoted to the celebration of these things is usually unavoidable for those who enter exhibitions of modern pictures. For a number of the ablest portrait painters become fashionable, and their works are certain to be prominently placed in any representative exhibition, so that there is no avoiding them. All the seduction of admirable painter-craft is employed to capture our attention for the expensive jewels and costly millinery of the last new millionaire's wife and family, for the sporting magnate himself with his top boots or his guns, his hounds, his hunters, and all that is his. It is all thrust upon us life-size, trampling over our humbler aspirations, to leave us breathless with amazement at its magnitude, and disheartened by its dulness. There is no escaping these things now; they are upon us, even as his motor car is, with a whirlwind of dust, discomfort, and distraction. There is not much we can do, save beware of these things. We can turn away our eyes from viewing vanity. We must recognize that the powers of poetry are here in bondage--hewers of wood and drawers of water for the Philistines, and so pass by. But we must point out the deplorable fact to the children so that they may identify it for what it is when they behold a display of ostentatious vulgarity.

There is prettiness, too, to be avoided. We have to be on our guard against the insidious rose-watery weakening of emotion, the sugaring down of knowledge to meet the taste of such as prefer to be fed with a spoon, and dare not see without blinkers. Whatever is pretty is pretty bad. Whatever life may be, it is not pretty. Whatever breathes has some force, some conviction; all that is real has some title to respect, some claim for sympathy. Manliness, temperance, sincerity, wear no blinkers. What they see they needs must see clearly, and there is not time for trifling. Distrust the pretty pictures, and do what you can to prevent your children from forming a taste for them.

It is often said to us, "We do not really require the works of artists; we like them, and admire them, but we can quite well do without them; they are superfluous things." In the phrase often heard, the meaning is concisely stated thus: Art is a luxury. The proposition commends itself as a true one to most people, who really do feel that they could quite well do without any pictures. They are conscious of desiring to have such things as give them pleasure, and of their need to be pleased, or rather amused. For in so far as good pictures are not found to answer these ends, they are liable to be relegated to the category of superfluities. Not being pretty, they do not please. If they are not gay, which they are seldom, or funny, which they never can be, they are not found entertaining or amusing. The idea is based on a conception widely prevailing, wherein the function of art is considered to be that of a public entertainer or purveyor of diversions. We are apt to think that our life is dull, and are ready to welcome brave shows to take us out of ourselves. The aspiration is natural, for, to many, life is dull. But there are agencies better adapted to enliven it than are the fine arts, and it is good for us to be taken out of ourselves, provided the chosen vehicle does not rush with us violently down a steep place. Various arts may minister to the amusement of the vacuous, but not fine arts. These can indeed take us out of ourselves, but only on condition that we permit them to take us beyond ourselves, and higher. This they have always done, and can always do. Demand, therefore, from fine art no more, nor less, than you have been accustomed to demand from fine literature, from poetry--the widening and refining of your experience. Life is not amusing, any more than it is pretty, and we know how true it is that our singers learn in sorrow what they teach in song.

From the Parents' Review article "On Exhibitions;" read the full article here

We don't want all our children to be artists, while we do want them to feel after and appreciate what is beautiful, and let us frankly acknowledge that it is not everyone that can be taught even that much. At least then we can lose no opportunity of showing them really beautiful things, examples of great masters in painting, sculpture or craftsmanship (of which there are increasing numbers within reach)--at least we can teach them something of the beauty of nature and common things, something of the grandeur of simplicity and truth. And we can encourage them in drawing, modeling, needlework, carpentering, and a score of other things which will help them to use their eyes and hands accurately, both for their own pleasure and for the advantage of their generation.

From the Parents' Review article "Educating the Artistic Feeling;" read the full article here

". . . great national collections are a sign of the decadence of modern times. If art were alive, pictures would be in our houses, churches, and public buildings. The art sense is a birthright of all, which the race cannot afford to lose, yet we are passing through an inartistic phase. Artistic interest is mixed with antiquarian interest, and few dare controvert the accepted standard of taste. The collections have been made representative, and not educative. A knowledge of the history of art is confused with a knowledge of art, whereas the latter is hindered by bookish study." from this Parents' Review article